The Greco Roman Period { Queen Cleopatra }

The Egyptian History is calcified into five sections:
ancient Egyptian period 3400 B.C to 335 B.C
The Greco Roman period 332 B.C to 30 B.C
The Coptic period
The Islamic period
The Modern period

When The Greco Roman Period Began?

The Greco Roman period began with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C He didn’t stay along in Egypt but he built a new capital in Egypt where the Nile meets the Mediterranean sea and called it Alexandria It’s the 2nd largest city in Egypt and a must-see location to visit during your trip to Egypt.

When Alexander the Great died the empire split into many parts, with the most powerful generals each ruling a section. Egypt eventually fell under the reign of Ptolemy. The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt in 305 B.C until the suicide of Cleopatra, at which time Egypt was annexed by Rome in 30 B.C.

Who is Queen Cleopatra?

Queen Cleopatra VII is one of the most famous female rulers in history. She was the last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, Queen Cleopatra was born around 69 B.C, and She is the daughter of King Ptolemy XII.

In 51 B.C., Ptolemy XII died, leaving the throne to 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII.
It is likely that the two siblings married, as was customary at the time…
Soon after they assumed power, complications arose between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII. Eventually, Cleopatra fled to Syria, where she assembled an army to defeat her rival in order to declare the throne for herself. In 48 B.C, she returned to Egypt with her military might and faced her brother at Pelusium, located on the empire’s eastern edge.

Around this same time, the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey was consuming Rome. Pompey eventually sought refuge in Egypt, but on orders by Ptolemy, was killed.
In pursuit of his rival, Julius Caesar followed Pompey into Egypt, where he met and eventually fell in love with Cleopatra. In Caesar, Cleopatra now had access to enough military muscle to dethrone her brother and solidify her grip on Egypt as sole ruler.

When Queen Cleopatra Ruled Egypt?

Following Caesar’s defeat of Ptolemy’s forces at the Battle of the Nile, Caesar restored Cleopatra to the throne. Soon after, Ptolemy XIII fled and drowned in the Nile.
In 47 B.C. Cleopatra bore Caesar a son, whom she called Caesarion.
Cleopatra eventually followed Caesar back to Rome, but returned to Egypt in 44 B.C., following his assassination.

In 41 B.C., Marc Antony, part of the Second Triumvirate that ruled Rome following the murder of Caesar, sent for Cleopatra so that she could answer questions about her allegiance to the empire’s fallen, leader.
Cleopatra agreed to his request and made a lavish entrance into the city of Tarsus. Captivated by her beauty and personality, Antony plunged into a love affair with Cleopatra that would eventually produce three children, including twins named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene

In the year 34 B.C., Antony returned with Cleopatra to Alexandria with a triumphant flair. Crowds swarmed to the Gymnasium to catch a glimpse of the couple seated on golden thrones that were elevated on silver platforms. Beside them sat their children.
Antony antagonized his rival by declaring Caesarion as Caesar’s real son and legal heir, rather than Octavian, whom the revered Roman leader had adopted. Octavian, however, fought back, declaring he’d seized Antony’s will, and told the Roman people that Antony had turned over Roman possessions to Cleopatra and that there were plans to make Alexandria the Roman capital.
In the year 31 B.C., Cleopatra, and Antony combined armies to try to defeat Octavian in a raging sea battle at Actium, on Greece’s west coast. The clash, however, proved to be a costly defeat for the Egyptians, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt.

When and How Queen Cleopatra Died?

Antony soon returned to the battlefield, where he was falsely informed that Cleopatra had died. Upon hearing the news, the despondent Roman leader committed suicide by stabbing himself. Cleopatra followed her lover’s demise by ending her life as well by being bitten by an Egyptian Cobra. She died on August 12, 30 B.C. The two were buried together, as they had wished, and Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.

So Egypt annexed to Rome by Caesar Augustus in 30 B.C, and he called Egypt Aegyptus, and he appointed a perfect in each Emperor, They were responsible for administration, protection, and finances of a province.

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