Top 30 Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
“If History Were Taught in the Form of Stories, It Would Never Be Forgotten” and that’s how Egypt achieved immortality. The Ancient Egyptians believed in cause and effect, for every action there is a reaction as stated by Newton third law, the Egyptians believed that the primary action had to come from a source and that’s why the ancient Egyptians believed in the existence of divine creations that can create, reshape and control everything around them even themselves. The ancient Egyptians looked at the stars, the flooding of the Nile, the sunrise & sunset, and more to seek an explanation that came in the shape of a vast pantheon of gods. Great tales, temples, and valleys were built in the honor of these heavenly creatures that they came to know as Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses who were responsible for all the gifts and pleasures of every single soul in Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians saw that the ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses were celestial beings that can unlock the wonders of the milky way, perform miracles and great acts of wonder, that’s why they decided to honor them by embodying them into a physical form that can be found all over Egypt in Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor, & Aswan.
Their entire life focused on the worship of the Egyptian gods which became an integral part of their daily lives. Egypt had over 2000 deities that each represented and controlled an aspect of the environment and had a deep & vital role in the immortal quest of every human being. One key component of their spiritual awareness was the magic or what they called “Heka” which was a divine power that holds everything together in the mortal and divine life. Egypt has enjoyed a massive number of stories and myths that affected their life deeply; most of these Egyptian mythology gods’ stories were discovered on the walls of their temples in Luxor or passed down from one generation to another.
The deities of ancient Egypt provided the people with everything they needed. The gods had names, unique powers, special features & transformations, individual personalities, traits, characteristics, style of clothing, personal sacred objects which had an impact on the infinite sphere of Egyptian society. The gods were known to take the physical form of a human and an animal like a phoenix, bull, cat, crocodile, lioness, falcon, and more. Here are the top 30 Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses:
1. Amun (Amun-Ra) “The Creator God”
He is the god of all gods, creator of existence, the supreme leader of gods and humanity in both the world of the living and the dead. He was the patron of the city of Thebes and even when the god Ra rose to Power since the days of the old kingdom of Egypt (2686-2181 BCE), Amun’s position was untouched as he even merged with him to become the supreme god Amun-Ra “The Hidden One” during the 16th to the 13th centuries BC during the new kingdom of Egypt (1570 – 1050 BC) who was worshipped with his wife goddess Mut and son Khonsu the moon god as the Theban triad. The position of the priestess wife of Amun was very powerful to the point where it can rival the position of a pharaoh. H can be seen as a human wearing a double plumed crown and sometimes depicted as a ram or a goose as shown by his time in the Karnak.
2. Ra (Atum) “God of Sun”
The great sun god. He is the personification of this mighty star and everything in Egypt including the pyramids of Giza. Ra was one of the first celestial beings who created the universe, life, and order instead of chaos. Ra was the supreme creator who ruled over the land of both the living and the dead. He is the father of the deities of Shu the air god and the Tefnut goddess of moisture and rain. He was the one celestial divine being to stand on the primordial mound of chaos and create life BenBen and order and create the universe. He looked like a child in the morning, an adult almost high noon, and an old man in the evening, he wears a crown with a solar disk upon which a sacred asp rested. He was the most powerful god who would protect other gods and souls from the primordial serpent “Apophis” as shown by his time in the Karnak.
3. Nut “Goddess of Earth”
Nut was the primordial sky goddess who was the wife of the Geb the god of Earth and the mother of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys. She was created by her father Atum and she & bother god of the earth Geb fell in love and had the four original gods despite Amun’s refusal. Each limb represented a cardinal point when her body stretched over the earth. She was often depicted swallowing the sun in the evening and giving birth to the sun at night.
4. Shu “God of Air”
Shu was one of the first two gods ever created by Atum with his sister-wife Tefnut. Shu was the god of the air, sunlight, and dry air and his wife was the goddess of moisture. He was depicted as a man wearing a headdress in the form of a plume, which is also the hieroglyph for his name. His job was to separate the sky from the earth.
5. Tefnut “Goddess of Moisture”
Tefnut was the goddess of moisture, corrosive air, and was depicted either as a lioness or a woman with a lioness’s head. She was the wife of Shu and the mother of Nut and Geb. She and her husband were the first gods created by Atum.
6. Osiris “God of Justice”
He is one of the early gods of creation and the five original gods, the great-grandson of Amun, and the ruler of the Underworld. He was the god of fertility who grow in fame, popularity, and influence because of the Osiris Myth in which he is killed by his evil brother Set “God of the Desert” then brought back to life by his sister-wife Isis “Goddess of Motherhood and Healing” and Horus the Elder, then descends to the underworld and became a lord and judge of the dead. In the afterlife, he is the main judge in the hall of Truth who weighs the souls of the dead against a white feather of the goddess Maat “Goddess of Truth and Justice“. He is depicted as a mummy with usually green or black skin, two ostrich feathers, holding a crook and flail of kingship, and a beard. Many ancient Egyptians chose to be buried near his cult in Abydos.
7. Isis “Goddess of Motherhood”
Isis is also known as Mut-Netier “Mother of the Gods” and West- Kekau “The Great Magic” has become a super deity that had a connection with virtually every aspect of humanity in time, life, and death. She was the wife of Osiris the ruler of the underworld and the mother of Hours the falcon sky god. She was known as Eset which means “Goddess of the Throne“. She became the most powerful and famous Egyptian mythology goddess due to the Osiris myth and her true care for other gods and humans as she appeared to them after death to guide them to paradise. She was depicted with a tail and a throne on her head and sometimes breastfeeding infant Horus. She had a massive cult that was extremely powerful that was worshiped in every part of the world from Britain through Europe in Greece and Rome to Asia.
8. Horus “God of Sky”
The legendary deity of the sky, the son of Osiris the ruler of the underworld, and Isis the goddess of motherhood and healing Horus is an avian god who is directly connected to the sky, the sun, and the divine power of the heavens. He is very famous and well-known because of his relation of the kings of Egypt as he’s a symbol for victory and order and all the kings believed that they were the incarnation of Horus in life and his father Osiris in death because of the Osiris Myth which he challenges and defeats his evil uncle Set to avenge his father and restore order and peace to Egypt. His symbol is the Hawk and the famous Eye of Horus the Wadjet eye which he sacrificed to save his father. Many confuse him with Hours the ELDER one of the early gods of creation. He takes the shape of a giant hawk or a falcon and usually features as a man with the head of Hawk
9. Set “God of Deception”
Set was known as the God of chaos, pestilence, and war, depicted with a tail and a beastly head plus was translated as The Destroyer & the Instigator of Confusion. He is considered a symbol of evil for killing his brother Osiris the ruler of Egypt who then became the ruler of the underworld and bringing a new age of darkness to Egypt. He is a desert god who brought devilish winds to the Nile River in order to steal the throne and take control. He accompanied Ra on his solar boat to battle the serpent Apophis. For eight years he battled his nephew the sky god Hours on the place which became known as the Edfu Temple and at the end, Horus won and declared king of Egypt. He is depicted as a red beast like a fox with cloven hooves and a forked tail that spreads catastrophes like storms, tsunamis, volcanoes, and any kind of a disaster.
10. Ma’at “Goddess of Balance”
Ma’at is the goddess of justice, truth, and most importantly harmony. She is considered to be one of the most important deities as the concept of balance & harmony and was a central focus to the culture and every aspect of the ancient Egyptian and an important component to all of time and space within existence. She put the stars in the sky and regulated all the four seasons. She also took part in the afterlife as she transforms into the feather of truth that weighed against the hearts to make the right judgment to enter paradise or fade into the void by Ammut. She was presented as a woman wearing an ostrich plume and sitting on her heels.
11. Anubis “God of Death”
One of the most famous and recognized ancient Egyptian gods is Anubis who is the god of the dead and judgment. He is the son of Osiris and Nephthys. He is known to be the original god of the dead, who guides the souls of the dead to the hall of Truth in the underworld to take part in the ritual of weighing of the heart to the feather of Ma’at in the afterlife to determine their fate. He’s depicted as a man with the head of a jackal carrying a staff featured on temples all over Egypt.
12. Nephthys “Goddess of Funerals”
Nephthys is a funerary goddess, the twin of Isis, the wife of Set, and the mother of Anubis. She is considered to be a dark goddess opposite to the light of her sister Isis the goddess of healing and motherhood. Her name means the mistress of the house and depicted as a woman with a house on her head. She is known to be friends of the dead as she cares for the souls in the afterlife. She played a key part in the Osiris Myth as she loved Osiris as she transformed herself in the form of Isis to seduce him and that’s how Anubis came to be. She betrayed the location of Osiris corpse to Set but later on helped Isis revive his soul from the underworld.
13. Hathor “Goddess of Drunkenness”
Hathor is one of the most famous and important ancient deities in Egyptian Mythology known as the lady of Drunkenness and lady of the sycamore. She was the goddess of Drunkenness, joy, celebration, women, childbirth, and love. She is also associated with gratitude and being thankful. She is the daughter of Ra, who defends paradise from Apep, She also helps guide the souls in the afterlife to Paradise. She is depicted as a woman with a cow’s head or simply a cow.
14. Bastet “Goddess of Beauty”
Bastet is a beautiful goddess of cats, fertility and a protector of evil & misfortune, and the daughter of Ra who was adored by all and everyone who carried her talismans and amulets. She was so revered as in 525 BCE the Persians used the Egyptian devotion to Bastet against them when they painted images of Bastet on their shield and drove cats in front of their armies and as a result, the Egyptians lost the battle of Pelusium instead of offending their gods. She was depicted as a cat or a woman with a cat’s head. Her myth was used to create the DC character “Catwoman”
15. Thoth “God of Intellect”
Thoth was the god of wisdom, knowledge, and truth who was credited as the inventor of writing and the record-keeper of the gods. He is also the patron of libraries and scribes and the Lord of time and Reckoner of years due to his control of time through his powerful divine knowledge of words as he was able to give Nut five days of moonlight so she can be able to give birth to original five gods without disobeying Amun. He is also known to be a benefactor of humanity as he gave them the gift of the written word. He also kept records in the Hall of Truth during the Weighing of the heart. He is depicted as a man with the head of an ibis holding a writing implement and his wife or daughter was Seshat who was his female counterpart and the goddess of libraries and books.
16. Ptah “God of Memphis”
Ptah is the god of the city of Memphis, lord of truth, creator of the god, and one of the oldest ancient Egyptians since the first dynastic period (3150-2613 BC), known also as Ptah-Nun or Ptah-Naunet. He is one of the oldest gods in Egyptian mythology; he is even confused with the sun god Ra. He is depicted as a mummified man wearing a skull cap and holding the Was scepter combined with the ankh and the Djed forming the scepter of authority. He is the patron god of sculptors, craftsmen, builders, or any artists of any kind. One of the most remarkable facts about Ptah is that the name Egypt was derived from the Greek word Aigyptos which corresponds to the word Hat-Ka-Ptah which means “Temple of the Soul of Ptah” located in Memphis.
17. Khonsu “God of Lunar”
Khonsu is the God of the moon and vengeance, his name means the Traveler. He is shown as a mummy holding a crook and a flail with a moon disc on his head and uraeus. He was a part of the Theban triad with his father Amun and Mother Mut. He was very popular, revered, and worshiped as one of the greatest gods especially during the days of the new kingdom (1570-1050 BC) because of his miraculous abilities like the instant healing of the sick. His story is also used for Marvel’s superhero “Moon Knight“.
18. Khnum “God of Potters”
Khnum is the patron god of potters and everyone who worked in ceramic plus the main source of the Nile. It is known he came from the Nubia in Upper Egypt. He’s the one who created the humans from the clay of the Nile River then held them to Ra the sun god, to give them life. He is shown as ram headed-god who represents fertility and virility.
19. Hapi “God of Fertility”
Hapi is fertility and a Nile silt god which is associated with the inundation which was the main source of the Nile that the ancient Egyptian farmers relied on for growing their crops. Hapi is shown depicted as a man with a large belly and breasts signifying success and fertility.
20. Sobek “God of the Nile”
Sobek is the Crocodile God, the lord of wetlands and marshes, and unexpected death with a connection with medicine and surgery. He is a very famous god in Egyptian mythology especially in the old kingdom, who is associated with procreation, fertility, medicine, and the Nile which was considered to be the sweat of Sobek. He is dedicated as a man with a crocodile’s head and his cult was known to have live crocodiles. He lived on a mythical mountain at the horizon where he ruled with absolute power and was linked with Ra to form what is known to be Sobek-Ra. He had a great connection with the Nile as it was considered to be his sweat.
21. Bes “God of Entertainment”
A famous Dwarf god that symbolizes fertility, childbirth, humor, and who is the protector against evil spirits, the guardian of women, children, the common man, and the fighter of divine order and justice. His consort is the hippopotamus goddess Taweret of fertility and childbirth. Bes is seen as a bearded dwarf with a lion-like mane, large ears, and a pug nose. His amulets and sculptures were considered a source of good luck.
22. Tawaret “Goddess of Childbirth”
The goddess of hippos Tawaret is associated with fertility and childbirth. She was very famous across the history of ancient Egypt as the guardian of children and an essential helper of women during birth and pregnancy. She is called a follower of Horus as she is closely associated with Hathor. She is the consort of the god Bes of children, humor, and entertainment.
23. Neith “Goddess of Arrows”
Neith is one of the earliest and most important Egyptian goddess of Lower Egypt who was worshipped during the predynastic period (6000 – 3150 BC) all the way to the Ptolemaic dynasty (323 – 30 BC). She is depicted as a war, funerary, mother, warrior, and creator goddess plus she was the patron of the city of Sais in the Nile Delta. She is dedicated and seen with a bow and arrows which explains why she gained the name Mistress of the Bow. She is famous as the Grandmother of the gods because she is known to be connected with the waters of chaos Nun, and known to be the inventor of birth plus the process of living and growing all sorts of things. She is depicted as a judge in the Hall of Truth and the protector & helper of the dead.
24. Serket “Goddess of Scorpions”
She is known as the scorpion goddess who was worshipped in the first dynasty (3150 – 2890 BC) all the way across the history of ancient Egypt as her golden statue was found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. She is an early mother goddess who protected children and people from the dangers of the scorpion and all kinds of venoms. Serket is known to follow Isis’s example and be a symbol of forgiveness and protection after Isis healed a boy from the venom of a scorpion whose mother insulted Isis then was forgiven by her. All of her priests were physicians who used her name and teaching in the healing of the ill and wounded. She also played a part in guiding the souls of the dead to Paradise and protecting them from any danger.
25. Nekhbet “Goddess of Vultures”
She is a unique goddess of the vultures, known to be one of the oldest goddesses of Egypt that dates back to the first dynasty (3150 – 2890 BC). She is the patron of the Pharaoh and is often shown spread over the king with her wings. She comes in the shape of a vulture who was the guardian of Upper Egypt. Her shrine was in the city of the dead Nekheb. She was associated with her sister Wadjet where they were called “The Two Ladies“.
26. Wadjet “Goddess of Kingship”
One of the most famous and oldest protective goddesses in the history of Ancient Egypt starting from the predynastic period where it was worshipped as a goddess of lower Egypt. Like her sister, she is one of the daughters of Ra. She played an important role in creation which involved the planting of the first Papyrus in the swamps of the Nile delta and helped Isis hide & raise Horus to total safety away from Set. She was known as West-Hekau which means “Great of Magic” as she offered protection against bad luck, evil spirits, demons, and ghosts. She was represented as a rearing Cobra known as the King’s Uraeus.
27. Kherty “God of the Underworld”
An important god who ferried the dead into the afterlife, He is a ram-headed god of the underworld who ruled the underworld during the old kingdom before Osiris becoming the Ruler of the Underworld. He took control of the entrance and the hallways leading to the hall of truth and the fields of reeds which was ruler by Osiris. He is shown as the protector of the kings but also as an enemy of the order who threatened the deceased kings on the way to the underworld.
28. Nefertum “God of Perfume”
He is the beautiful god of perfume and sweet aromas, who was born from the essence of a blue lotus at the dawn of creation. His name means beautiful Atum who was associated with enchanting & sweet-smelling flowers. He represented the concepts of transformation and rebirth due to his connection with flowers and gods. He played a role in providing healing aromas to cure disease and wounds.
29. Renenutet “Goddess of Nursing”
A very special and unique goddess who was depicted as a cobra or a rearing cobra on the head of a Queen, her name means “Snake Who Nourishes” as she was the goddess of raring children and nursing. She had the power to determine the length of a person’s life and their entire destiny. She was viewed as Atum’s wife or consort, and the mother of Osiris. In the afterlife, she was known as the lady of justifications due to her link with Ma’at. She was known as the lady of the fertile fields and the lady of granaries who protected the harvest of the grains with Hapi. She would appear as a fire-breathing cobra protecting the pharaoh from his enemies.
30. Heka “God of Magic”
One of the most important ancient Egyptian gods, who is the Patron of medicine and magic and was the primordial source of knowledge and power in the universe is the Heka. He is depicted as a man carrying a knife and a staff plus his physicians were known as the priests of Heka who can practice magic and medicine which explains why it became a very famous god among doctors. It is believed that he killed two serpents then entwined them to his staff as a symbol of his power which was later passed to the Greeks who created the caduceus that is found in the hands of Hermes.
Ancient Egyptian history has marvelous stories to discover and share; so explore the breathtaking archaeological destinations across this majestic civilization by immersing yourself in an unforgettable journey to Egypt. Check our Egypt vacation packages and choose your trip onboard a magical Nile cruise and cast your eyes on the stunning artifacts of Egypt.